Heart Failure Network (HFN) Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure and Reliable Evaluation of Dyspnea (ROSE)

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Accession Number

Study Type
Clinical Trial

Collection Type
Open BioLINCC Study See bottom of this webpage for request information

Study Period
May 2010 – August 2014

NHLBI Division

Dataset(s) Last Updated
January 3, 2018


Commercial Use Data Restrictions No

Data Restrictions Based On Area Of Research No


To test the two independent hypotheses that when compared to placebo, addition of: (1) low dose dopamine; or (2) low dose nesiritide to diuretic therapy will enhance decongestion and preserve renal function in patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction.


A primary treatment goal in acute heart failure is to achieve adequate decongestion while avoiding renal dysfunction and other side effects. Patients with acute heart failure and moderate or severe renal dysfunction are at risk for inadequate decongestion and worsening renal function—both of which are associated with worse outcomes. Renal adjuvant therapies that enhance decongestion and preserve renal function during treatment of acute heart failure are needed.

Dopamine is an endogenous catecholamine which at low doses, may selectively activate dopamine receptors and promote renal vasodilatation. Previous studies have suggested that the addition of low dose dopamine to diuretic therapy enhances decongestion and preserves renal function during diuretic therapy in acute heart failure; however, these studies were small with variable study designs and dopamine doses.

B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a cardiac peptide with vasodilating, renin and aldosterone inhibiting, natriuretic and diuretic properties. Nesiritide is human recombinant BNP approved for management of acute heart failure. The recommended dose lowers blood pressure and atrial pressures and produces modest improvement in dyspnea, but does not favorably impact clinical outcomes or renal function, potentially due to its hypotensive effects. Small studies using low dose nesiritide in acute heart failure and cardiac surgery patients have demonstrated favorable effects on urine output and renal function.

Therefore, the Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation (ROSE) trial was initiated to determine the benefits and safety of intravenous administration of low dose nesiritide or low dose dopamine in patients with congestive heart failure and kidney dysfunction.


Eligible patients were adults with a diagnosis of acute heart failure who had renal dysfunction. The diagnosis of heart failure was based on at least one symptom (dyspnea, orthopnea, or edema) and one sign of heart failure (rales, edema, ascites, or pulmonary vascular congestion on chest radiography) regardless of ejection fraction. Prior clinical diagnosis of heart failure must have been identified within 24 hours of hospital admission. Renal dysfunction was defined as an estimated GFR of 15 to 60 mL/min/1.73m2 determined by the MDRD equation.


Subjects were enrolled within 24 hours of hospital admission and randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the nesiritide or dopamine strategies. Participants randomized to the dopamine strategy were randomized in a double-blind 2:1 ratio to low dose dopamine (2 μg/kg/min for 72 hours infused via local guideline stipulated vascular access) or placebo. Participants randomized to the nesiritide strategy were randomized in a double-blind 2:1 ratio to low dose nesiritide (0.005 μg/kg/min for 72 hours infused via peripheral intravenous access without initial bolus) or placebo.

All patients received open-label, intravenous loop diuretic treatment with a recommended total daily dose equal to 2.5x the total daily oral outpatient furosemide (or equivalent) dose at 7 days prior to admission up to a maximum of 600 mg/day. Patients naive to outpatient loop diuretics received 80 mg/day of intravenous furosemide. One-half of the total daily diuretic dose was administered as a bolus twice daily for at least 24 hours. Use of other medications and diuretic dosing after 24 hours were at the discretion of the clinician. All patients were placed on a 2000 mg sodium diet and 2000 cc fluid restriction. After the primary endpoint assessment at 72 hours, study drug was discontinued and subsequent treatment was at the clinician’s discretion. The two co-primary endpoints were the 72-hour cumulative urinary volume as an index of decongestion efficacy and the change in cystatin-C from randomization to 72 hours as a measure of renal function preservation.


In participants with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction, neither low-dose dopamine nor low-dose nesiritide enhanced decongestion or improved renal function when added to diuretic therapy.

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