Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) Controlled Study of the Clinical Effectiveness of Automated Real-Time Feedback on CPR Process Conducted at a Subset of ROC Sites (CPR)

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Accession Number

Study Type
Clinical Trial

Collection Type
Open BioLINCC Study See bottom of this webpage for request information

Study Period
2/2007 - 11/2009

NHLBI Division

Dataset(s) Last Updated
January 3, 2018


Commercial Use Data Restrictions No

Data Restrictions Based On Area Of Research No


A substudy of the ROC PRIMED trial, the ROC CPR trial sought to investigate whether real-time audio and visual feedback during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) outside a hospital increases the proportion of subjects who achieved prehospital return of spontaneous circulation.


Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an essential link in the chain of survival for treating cardiac arrest. However, performance of CPR is highly variable both outside hospital and in hospital. Interruptions in chest compression, inadequate depth of chest compression, and high rates of ventilation adversely affect blood flow during chest compressions and can hinder resuscitation. Suboptimal CPR, particularly time spent without chest compressions (low chest compression fraction), can reduce survival of cardiac arrest patients.

Current technology incorporated into a monitor-defibrillator can assess core components of CPR through the use of an accelerometer and impedance changes across the defibrillation electrodes. This technology can also provide real-time audiovisual feedback so that the rescuer is prompted to perform according to guideline specifications. Use of such feedback increases the likelihood of performing CPR in accordance with guidelines during training and simulation.


The study subjects were adults aged ≥20 years who had a cardiac arrest outside hospital and received rescue shocks or chest compressions by a participating emergency medical service with a monitor-defibrillator capable of real-time CPR feedback. Subjects were excluded if known to be prisoners or pregnant, if the cardiac arrest was due to traumatic causes, or if the subject had a “do not resuscitate” order. There were 1586 subjects total: 771 treated without feedback and 815 with feedback.


CPR feedback was provided through proprietary Q-CPR software operating in the Philips MRx monitor-defibrillator. The feedback feature of the defibrillator includes audible voice prompts and visual messages on the monitor screen that are triggered when measured chest compressions or ventilation deviate from guidelines or are interrupted.

The study was conducted in 21 emergency medical service (EMS) agencies at three ROC regions in the U.S. and Canada. Randomized treatment clusters, which ranged from individual emergency medical vehicles to groups of emergency agencies, were assigned to feedback-on or feedback-off treatments. Each cluster remained in its assigned mode for two to seven months, after which it switched to the opposite treatment arm. At the end of those two treatment periods, each cluster was again randomly assigned to feedback-on or feedback-off. This cycle continued for the duration of the study. Each cluster switched treatment arms at least once, and up to four times, during the study.


Real-time visual and audible feedback during CPR altered performance to more closely conform with CPR guidelines. Clusters assigned to feedback were associated with increased proportion of time in which chest compressions were provided, increased compression depth, and decreased proportion of compressions with incomplete release. However, frequency of prehospital return of spontaneous circulation did not differ according to feedback status, nor did the presence of a pulse at hospital arrival, survival to discharge, or awake at hospital discharge. (BMJ. 2011 Feb 4;342:d512)

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