Efficacy and safety of digoxin in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction according to diabetes status: An analysis of the Digitalis Investigation Group (DIG) trial.
Pubmed ID: 26913372
Journal: International journal of cardiology
Publication Date: 04/15/2016
Affiliation: Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, UK. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
MeSH Terms: Humans, Male, Female, Aged, Risk Factors, Middle Aged, Heart Failure, Hospitalization, Treatment Outcome, Hyperkalemia, Cardiotonic Agents, Retrospective Studies, Stroke Volume, Diabetes Mellitus, Digoxin, Digitalis
Authors: McMurray JJ, Abdul-Rahim AH, MacIsaac RL, Jhund PS, Petrie MC, Lees KR
Cite As: Abdul-Rahim AH, MacIsaac RL, Jhund PS, Petrie MC, Lees KR, McMurray JJ, On behalf the VICCTA-Heart Failure Collaborators. Efficacy and safety of digoxin in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction according to diabetes status: An analysis of the Digitalis Investigation Group (DIG) trial. Int J Cardiol 2016 Apr 15;209:310-6. Epub 2016 Feb 8.
BACKGROUND: Digoxin is recommended in symptomatic heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) in sinus rhythm and refractory to other evidence-based therapy. Although HF-REF patients with diabetes have worse functional status than those without, the effects of digoxin have not been specifically evaluated according to diabetes status. METHODS: We examined the efficacy and safety of digoxin in HF-REF patients with and without diabetes in the Digitalis Investigation Group trial. Mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular (CV) causes and heart failure (HF), along with HF hospitalisation and suspected digoxin toxicity were analyzed according to diabetes status and randomised treatment assignment. RESULTS: Of the 6800 patients, those with diabetes (n=1933) were older, more often women, had worse clinical status and more co-morbidity than those without diabetes. All-cause and CV mortality were higher in patients with diabetes than in those without and digoxin did not reduce mortality in either sub-group. The rate of HF hospitalization (per 100 person-years) in patients with diabetes was higher than in those without and was reduced by digoxin in both patient groups: diabetes - placebo 20.5 and digoxin 16.0 (HR 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68-0.91); no diabetes - placebo 12.7 and digoxin 8.7 (HR 0.69, 0.62-0.77); interaction p=0.14. Suspected digoxin toxicity in patients randomised to digoxin was more common among patients with diabetes than without (6.5% versus 5.8%), as was hospitalisation for digoxin toxicity (1.4% versus 0.8%). CONCLUSION: Added to an ACE inhibitor, digoxin reduced HF hospitalisation in HF-REF patients with and without diabetes without a substantial risk of toxicity.