Creatine kinase is associated with bleeding after myocardial infarction.
Pubmed ID: 32675301
Pubmed Central ID: PMC7368484
Journal: Open heart
Publication Date: 07/01/2020
Affiliation: Clinic for Health and Individual Medicine, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
MeSH Terms: Humans, Male, Female, Risk Factors, United States, Middle Aged, Risk Assessment, Treatment Outcome, Time Factors, Coronary Artery Bypass, Fibrinolytic Agents, Thrombolytic Therapy, Tissue Plasminogen Activator, Biomarkers, Hemorrhage, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction, Administration, Intravenous, Creatine Kinase
Authors: Brewster LM, Fernand J
Cite As: Brewster LM, Fernand J. Creatine kinase is associated with bleeding after myocardial infarction. Open Heart 2020 Jul;7. (2).
BACKGROUND: The ADP-scavenging enzyme creatine kinase (CK) is reported to reduce ADP-dependent platelet activation. Therefore, we studied whether highly elevated CK after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is associated with bleeding. METHODS: Data of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Study Group phase II trial on the efficacy of angioplasty, following intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA), are used to assess whether peak plasma CK (CKmax) is independently associated with adjudicated fatal or non-fatal bleeding (primary) and combined bleeding/all-cause mortality (secondary) in multivariable binomial logistic regression analysis, adjusting for baseline and treatment allocation covariates. RESULTS: The included patients (n=3339, 82% men, 88% white, mean age 57 years, SE 0.2) had a history of angina pectoris (55%), hypertension (38%) and/or diabetes mellitus (13%). CKmax ranged from 16 to 55 890 IU/L (mean 2389 IU/L, SE 41), reached within 8 hours in 51% of the patients (93% within 24 hours). Adjudicated fatal/non-fatal bleeding occurred in 30% of the patients (respectively 26% in the low vs 34% in the high CK tertile), and bleeding/all-cause mortality in 35% (29% in the low vs 40% in the high CK tertile). In multivariable regression analysis, the adjusted OR for fatal/non-fatal bleeding (vs not bleeding and survival) was 2.6 (95% CI 1.8 to 3.7)/log CKmax increase, and 3.1 (2.2 to 4.4) for bleeding/all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: Highly elevated plasma CK after myocardial infarction might be an independent predictor of bleeding and haemorrhagic death. This biologically plausible association warrants further prospective study of the potential role of extracellular CK in ADP-dependent platelet activation and bleeding.